Valentine & Sons of Dundee were Scotland’s most successful commercial photographers. In the early 1900s, at the height of the postcard craze, they published cards showing scenes from a number of countries, including the U.K., Canada, Australia, South Africa and the United States of America. Remembered today primarily as postcard publishers, Valentine & Sons actually produced images in various formats, including fine early photographic prints. In a 1905 advertisement, the company claimed to have produced “pictorial envelopes” over 60 years earlier (i.e. prior to 1845).
The U.K. Company
The Dundee-based company had been founded in 1825 by John Valentine. After learning the daguerreotype process in Paris in the late 1840s, in 1851 Valentine’s son James added portrait photography to the family business. By the 1860s the company had begun to cater to the growing tourist industry by producing photographic prints with views from around the country. After James’s death in 1880, his son William Dobson Valentine took over the ever-expanding business. Valentine & Sons converted from a partnership of the family members to a joint-stock company in 1896, the year in which it is said to have issued its first postcard. By 1907 — according to an article in the Canadian Druggist, a trade publication — its factories in Dundee and Edinburgh employed 700 people and were turning out 3,000,000 postcards every week. As early as 1904, the company advertised that its “Valentine’s Series” cards included “upwards of 50,000 Different Views representing every town and beautiful scene in Great Britain.” The operation continued until 1980 when the last remnants of the business were sold off to Hallmark, Inc.
Expansion into Canada
The firm’s Canadian business began between 1903 and 1906 when its Canadian subsidiary, Valentine & Sons Publishing Co., Ltd., opened in Montreal and Toronto. Montreal was the head office, staffed by a number of persons including George Clark, who had been sent from Scotland by the parent company to establish the operation. In 1908, at least, the Toronto office appears to have been small — a room at 69 Adelaide Street East and a handful of employees — possibly just an order-taking operation for its British parent (although it must have grown in subsequent years). In 1912, offices opened in Winnipeg and Vancouver.
The Canadian postcards
The earliest Canadian postcards published by Valentine & Sons were uncoloured collotypes of scenery along the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway north of Lake Superior and in the Rocky Mountains. Typically, Valentine postcards have a 6-digit serial number (###,###) on the view side with the initials “J.V.” in a circle adjacent to that number. The main series of numbering begins with a Halifax card as no. 100,000 and ends (as far as we know) with a postcard of Toronto as no. 115,981. There are also two short runs of numbers in the 400,000 range that are found on some cards from the Yukon Territory and a longer run of views from various parts of Canada that begins at 600,000 and continues past 602,000. Other ranges belonged to Valentine & Sons’ branches in other countries, as follows: USA – 200,000s; Australia – 300,000s; and South Africa – 500,000s. Valentine & Sons produced postcards of all Canadian provinces, although there were only a handful from Newfoundland & Labrador, which was not a part of Canada in that era.
Speaking very generally, the earlier Valentine & Sons cards — numbered from the 100,000s through the 105,000s — tend to be more common, while the later, higher, numbers are significantly more likely to be scarce. It is important to realize that the Valentine number refers to the image on the postcard and not to the card itself. In other words, if (for example) an image was published once, then re-published on a card with a different border design and then issued in a “moonlight” version (i.e. a card coloured to look as though the photo was taken at night, in the moonlight), all three of those cards will have the same Valentine number. That is one reason that it is unlikely that we will ever be able to say with certainty how many Canadian Valentine & Sons cards were printed. Even if we succeeded in associating all of the numbers in each of the sequences with an image, it would be nearly impossible (in the absence of company records) to know how many “variants” were produced from each of those images. Moreover, some Valentine postcards are unnumbered, e.g. the “multiviews” — essentially collages of multiple images — that the company produced in relatively large numbers.
The Canadian division becomes independent (1909), splits into two (1926)
In 1909, George Clark, Percy McIntosh Black and a number of others in Montreal bought out the Canadian Valentine & Sons operation, incorporating it as the Valentine & Sons United Publishing Company, Limited. In 1926, the Canadian company split into two: the Toronto-based Valentine Black (under Percy Black) and the Winnipeg-based Valentine Edy (under J. C. Harrington Edy). The two companies continued to reproduce some of the existing images, but Valentine Edy, in particular, adopted new numbering systems in its later years. The Valentine Edy Co. ceased operations in 1957, followed by Valentine Black in 1964. The Vancouver office, it should be noted, existed only from 1912 to 1919, although E. P. Chandler, a photographic supplies dealer, had reportedly been the company’s original representative in British Columbia from around 1908 or 1909, according to an account in the Vancouver World newspaper in 1910.
Valentine & Sons in the Canadian Context: Then and Now
Valentine & Sons cards are by far the most common “Golden Age” postcards found in Canada. Because “familiarity breeds contempt”, these attractive cards are not always given the credit they deserve. Many of the cards are inexpensive, primarily because they are so common, but others are quite scarce and relatively valuable. Thanks to the prolific production of Valentine & Sons, it is possible to assemble a sizeable collection of good-quality postcards from nearly any region of Canada quite inexpensively. The advertisement below, which appeared in the Canadian Druggist in 1907, gives a sense of Valentine & Sons’ strong position in the market and multitudinous offerings.
Dating Valentine & Sons’ Canadian Postcards
As a rough guide, the following list gives some idea of the time period represented by the main Canadian Valentine & Sons series, divided into “thousands”. The dates indicated are those of the earliest postmark in a small sample of Valentine & Sons cards. There is no claim that the dates in the list are the earliest, but in many or most cases, they should be close to the earliest date:
- 100,000 – 1906 (April)+
- 101,000 – 1906 (August)+
- 102,000 – 1907 (January)+
- 103,000 – 1908 (August)
- 104,000 – 1909 (July)+
- 105,000 – 1910 (January)
- 106,000 – 1911 (January)+
- 107,000 – 1911 (December)
- 108,000 – 1912 (August)+*
- 109,000 – 1913 (January)
- 110,000 – 1913 (October)+
- 111,000 – 1914 (August)
- 112,000 – 1918 (March; in this sequence, we begin to see white border cards and cards by Valentine-Black)+
- 113,000 – 1928 (September; a Valentine-Black card)+
- 114,000 – 1932 (July; very few recorded uses)+
- 115,000 – 1922 (July; all in sample are Valentine-Black)
- 600,000 – 1908 (March; many of these were published for other publishers or were made as promotional items for the depicted businesses)
- 601,000 – 1909 (December; ditto)+
- 602,000 – 1927 (September; the highest number found to date is 602,037, so there are very few cards in this range. Nearly all of them are Valentine Edy cards from Manitoba and Saskatchewan)+
The earliest date that we have seen in April 18, 1906 — anyone who has seen a Valentine & Sons Canadian postcard that was postmarked earlier than this is asked to get in touch with us (remember, it has to be Canadian — V&S were certainly publishing cards in the U.K. before 1906). It is likely that the earliest card would have the distinctive features of the card illustrated above and below — a monochrome collotype image (with caption in a band along the bottom) and, on the reverse, a distinctive “CANADIAN POST CARD” heading that seems to have been dropped quite quickly, in favour of the more familiar “SOUVENIR POST CARD” and double-globe backs.
*Thanks to TPC members Jack Cline and Ken Elder for dating information on the 108,000+ sequence, which seems to have been distributed beginning in the summer of 1912. A (+) indicates that the date given has recently (as of March 2019) been changed to reflect new information about earlier dates.
For More Information
The most complete list of Valentine & Sons postcards is on our “lists” page. Click here for more information.
Valentine & Sons on Wikipedia
University of St. Andrew’s (Scotland) Photographic Archive
Edinburgh Photo History
Luminous Lint- a website with a James Valentine biography and photo archive